(A) You play the piano beautifully. How much do you practice every day? (B) My brother practices his violin an hour a day. (C) He practiced two hours yesterday. (D) If you want to be a professional musician, you must practice every day. (A) คุณเล่นเปียโนอย่างสวยงาม เท่าไหร่คุณปฏิบัติทุกวัน (B) พี่ชายของฉันปฏิบัติไวโอลินชั่วโมงต่อวัน (C) เขามีประสบการณ์สองชั่วโมงเมื่อวานนี้ (D) ถ้าคุณต้องการที่จะเป็นนักดนตรีมืออาชีพที่คุณต้องปฏิบัติทุกวัน
2. name =
(A) Who would you name as the greatest writer of our times? (B) They named him ambassador last week. (C) I wonder who they will name as the poet of the year. (D) What did they name the baby? (A) ที่คุณจะตั้งชื่อเป็นนักเขียนที่ยิ่งใหญ่ที่สุดของเวลาของเราหรือไม่ (B) พวกเขาตั้งชื่อเขาทูตเมื่อสัปดาห์ที่แล้ว (C) ผมสงสัยว่าผู้ที่พวกเขาจะตั้งชื่อเป็นกวีของปี (D) สิ่งที่พวกเขาตั้งชื่อลูกหรือไม่
3. care (for) =
(A) This poetry is very realistic. I don’t care for it very much. (B) I read the novel last night, but I didn’t care for it at all. (C) Do you care for this kind of music? Personally, I don’t like jazz. (A) บทกวีนี้เป็นจริงมาก ฉันไม่สนใจกับมันมาก (B) ผมอ่านนวนิยายเรื่องนี้เมื่อคืนนี้ แต่ผมไม่สนใจมันเลย (C) คุณดูแลชนิดของเพลงนี้ ส่วนตัวผมไม่ชอบดนตรีแจ๊ส
4. appreciate, be appreciated =
(A) Many great writers were not appreciated fully while they were alive. (B) How can I appreciate poetry if I don’t understand it? (C) Do you think his music was appreciated while he was alive? (D) Thank you for helping me. I really appreciate your advice. (A) นักเขียนที่ดีมากที่ไม่ได้รับการชื่นชมอย่างเต็มที่ในขณะที่พวกเขายังมีชีวิตอยู่ (B) ฉันสามารถชื่นชมบทกวีได้อย่างไรว่าฉันไม่เข้าใจมันได้หรือไม่ (C) คุณคิดว่าเพลงของเขาได้รับการชื่นชมในขณะที่เขายังมีชีวิตอยู่? (D) ขอบคุณที่ช่วยฉัน ผมขอขอบคุณคำแนะนำของคุณ
5. use =
(A) This writer uses vivid descriptions in his writings. (B) I’d like to use the piano when you’re finished practicing. (C) I didn’t use your book. I have my own book. (D) You have to use your own judgment. I can’t make this decision for you. (A) นักเขียนนี้ใช้คำอธิบายที่ชัดเจนในงานเขียนของเขา (B) ฉันต้องการที่จะใช้เปียโนเมื่อคุณเสร็จสิ้นการฝึกซ้อม (C) ฉันไม่ได้ใช้หนังสือของคุณ ฉันมีหนังสือของตัวเอง (D) คุณต้องใช้วิจารณญาณของคุณเอง ฉันไม่สามารถทำให้การตัดสินใจครั้งนี้สำหรับคุณ
6. accept =
(A) Many people don’t accept modern music because they don’t understand it. (B) I can’t accept your advice in this matter. This is something I must decide on my own. (C) I haven’t accepted his suggestion yet. I’m still considering it. (A) มีหลายคนที่ไม่ยอมรับดนตรีสมัยใหม่เพราะพวกเขาไม่เข้าใจมัน (B) ฉันไม่สามารถยอมรับคำแนะนำของคุณในเรื่องนี้ นี่คือสิ่งที่ผมจะต้องตัดสินใจด้วยตัวเอง (C) ฉันไม่ได้รับการยอมรับข้อเสนอแนะของเขายัง ฉันยังคงพิจารณามัน
Word/Phrase Substitution Drills
1a What’s your favorite kind of music? Do you like jazz ?
1b What’s your favorite kind of music? Do you like popular music?
1c What’s your favorite kind of music? Do you like classical music?
1d What’s your favorite kind of music? Do you like folk songs?
1e What’s your favorite kind of music? Do you like blues?
2a He’s a composer of serious music. I like his music a lot.
2b He’s a composer of popular songs. I like his music a lot.
2c He’s a composer of church hymns. I like his music a lot.
2d He’s a composer of sacred music. I like his music a lot.
2e He’s a composer of folk ballads. I like his music a lot.
3a We went to a concert last night to hear the symphony orchestra.
3b We went to a concert last night to hear the U.S. Navy band.
3c We went to a concert last night to hear a famous violinist.
3d We went to a concert last night to hear a well-known pianist.
4a My brother took lessons on the trumpet for nearly ten years.
4b My brother took lessons on the flute for nearly ten years.
4c My brother took lessons on the clarinet for nearly ten years.
4d My brother took lessons on the trombone for nearly ten years.
4e My brother took lessons on the saxophone for nearly ten years.
4f My brother took lessons on the cello for nearly ten years.
4g My brother took lessons on the drums for nearly ten years.
5a You play the piano beautifully. How much do you practice every day?
5b You play the organ beautifully. How much do you practice every day?
5c You play the violin beautifully. How much do you practice every day?
5d You play the harp beautifully. How much do you practice every day?
5e You play the guitar beautifully. How much do you practice every day?
6a I’ve never heard that piece before. Who wrote it?
6b I’ve never heard that composition before. Who wrote it?
6c I’ve never heard that song before. Who wrote it?
6d I’ve never heard that music before. Who wrote it?
6e I’ve never heard that melody before. Who wrote it?
6f I’ve never heard that concerto before. Who wrote it?
7a Have you ever thought of becoming a professional musician?
7b Have you ever thought of playing for an orchestra?
7c Have you ever thought of joining a dance band?
7d Have you ever thought of playing in a string quartet?
7e Have you ever thought of giving a recital?
8a Who is the author of this novel?
8b Who is the author of this mystery story?
8c Who is the author of this biography?
8d Who is the author of this short story?
8e Who is the author of this play?
8f Who is the author of this essay?
9a I’ve never read a more stirring story.
9b I’ve never read a more exciting story.
9c I’ve never read a more stimulating story.
9d I’ve never read a more thrilling story.
9e I’ve never read a more fascinating story.
10a Who would you name as the greatest poet of our times?
10b Who would you name as the greatest writer of our times?
10c Who would you name as the greatest novelist of our times?
10d Who would you name as the greatest playwright of our times?
11a This poetry is realistic . I don’t care for it very much.
11b This poetry is unrealistic. I don’t care for it very much.
11c This poetry is impressionistic. I don’t care for it very much.
11d This poetry is sentimental. I don’t care for it very much.
11e This poetry is romantic. I don’t care for it very much.
12a Many great writers were not appreciated fully while they were alive.
12b Many great writers were not understood fully while they were alive.
12c Many great writers were not accepted fully while they were alive.
13a This is a poem about frontier life in the United States.
13b This is a poem about pioneer days in the United States.
13c This is a poem about rural customs in the United States.
13d This is a poem about city life in the United States.
14a This writer uses vivid descriptions in his writings.
14b This writer uses a lot of humor in his writings.
14c This writer uses many metaphors in his writings.
14e This writer uses imagination and artistry in his writings.
15a How much do you know about the works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ?
15b How much do you know about the works of great literary figures ?
15c How much do you know about the works of contemporary writers ?
Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) 1835-1910
No author in American literature is better known or more loved than Samuel Langhorne Clemens. Born in Missouri in 1835, he grew up on the banks of the Mississippi River and later adopted the pen name of “Mark Twain” from the call of the boatmen on the Mississippi as they measured the depth of the river. ผู้เขียนในวรรณคดีอเมริกันไม่เป็นที่รู้จักกันดีหรือคนรักมากขึ้นกว่าที่ซามูเอลแลงฮอร์คลีเมน เกิดในรัฐมิสซูรี่ในปี 1835 เขาเติบโตขึ้นมาบนฝั่งของแม่น้ำมิสซิสซิปปีและต่อมาใช้ชื่อปากกาของ “Mark Twain” จากการเรียกร้องของเล่าขานในมิสซิสซิปปี้ที่พวกเขาวัดความลึกของแม่น้ำ
The river environment inspired the two novels which brought him his greatest fame: Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Another book, Life on the Mississippi, told of his adventures on the riverboats of that period. สภาพแวดล้อมที่เป็นแรงบันดาลใจแม่น้ำสองเล่มซึ่งทำให้เขามีชื่อเสียงที่ยิ่งใหญ่ที่สุดของเขา Tom Sawyer และฟินแลนด์เกิล หนังสืออีกเล่มหนึ่งชีวิตที่มิสซิสซิปปี้บอกของการผจญภัยของเขาในลุ่มน้ำในยุคนั้น
It was during the Civil War that Mark Twain’s life as a writer started. At that time he was working as a newspaper man in Nevada and California. His short story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” was an immediate success and his new career began. มันเป็นช่วงสงครามกลางเมืองว่าชีวิตของมาร์คทเวนเป็นนักเขียนเริ่มต้น ในขณะที่เขาทำงานเป็นคนส่งหนังสือพิมพ์ในเนวาดาและแคลิฟอร์เนีย เรื่องสั้นของเขา “กบกระโดดฉลองของเวรัสเคาน์ตี้” เป็นความสำเร็จในทันทีและอาชีพใหม่ของเขาเริ่ม
In 1870, Mark Twain married Olivia Langdon. He had fallen in love with her picture even before he met her. According to his biographers, his wife had a great influence on Twain’s later books. ในปี 1870 Mark Twain แต่งงานกับโอลิเวียแลงดอน เขาได้ตกหลุมรักกับภาพของเธอก่อนที่เขาจะได้พบกับเธอ ตามที่นักเขียนชีวประวัติของเขาภรรยาของเขามีอิทธิพลอย่างมากในหนังสือเล่มต่อมาทั้งคู่
Mark Twain was also a very successful lecturer. His travels around the country giving talks on variety of subjects helped make him famous and increased the sale of his books. Mark Twain ยังเป็นวิทยากรที่ประสบความสำเร็จมาก การเดินทางของเขาทั่วประเทศให้การพูดคุยเกี่ยวกับความหลากหลายของวิชาที่ช่วยทำให้เขามีชื่อเสียงและเพิ่มการขายหนังสือของเขา
Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn are considered Twain’s best works. They are marked by humor and satire and provide his readers with an excellent picture of his era. His last book was completed in 1909, one year before his death. He was then 74 years old. Tom Sawyer และฟินแลนด์เกิลถือเป็นงานที่ดีที่สุดของทั้งคู่ พวกเขาจะทำเครื่องหมายด้วยอารมณ์ขันและการเสียดสีและให้ผู้อ่านของเขากับภาพที่ยอดเยี่ยมในยุคของเขา หนังสือเล่มสุดท้ายของเขาเสร็จสมบูรณ์ในปี 1909 หนึ่งปีก่อนที่เขาจะเสียชีวิต แล้วเขาก็ 74 ปี
1. Where did Mark Twain grow up?
2. What was his real name?
3. Name three of Mark Twain’s writings.
4. How did Mark Twain fall in love with his wife?
5. Besides writing, what else did Mark Twain do?
6. What two books are considered Twain’s best works?
artistry  The skill and imagination typical of an artist, writer, musician, or actor. The artistry of Andre Segovia is absolutely breath-taking.
author  An author is broadly defined as “the person who originated or gave existence to anything” and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.
ballad  A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were originally “dancing songs”. Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and song of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century and used extensively across Europe and later the Americas, Australia and North Africa.
beautifully  Igor Stravinsky’s “The Rite of Spring” is a beautifully crafted piece of music.
biography  A biography is a book that someone writes about someone else’s life. A book that someone writes about their own life is called an autobiography.
blues Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that primarily originated in African-American communities of the “Deep South” of the United States around the end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads.
cello  The cello (plural cellos or celli) is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola and double bass.
classical  Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western music (both liturgical and secular), encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. The term “classical music” did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to “canonize” the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to “classical music” recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.
composer  A composer (Latin com+ponere, literally “one who puts together”) is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material as electroacoustic music.
composition  Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating a new piece of music. People who practice composition are called composers.
concerto  A concerto is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra.
drum  The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player’s hands, or with a drum stick, to produce sound. There is usually a resonance head on the underside of the drum, typically tuned to a slightly lower pitch than the top drumhead.
essay  An essay is generally a short piece of writing written from an author’s personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. John Steinbeck wrote several essays about the Great Depression era.
fascinating  (adj.) very interesting or attractive; a fascinating story/person/place; I find the novels of John Steinbeck to be very facinating.
figure  someone who is important in some way; a prominent/key/leading figure: Ernest Hemingway was the dominant literary figure in American literature in the Twentieth Century.
flute  The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones.
folk  Joan Baez is perhaps the most famous American folk singer of the Twentieth Century.
frontier  the outer edge of a country or area that is the furthest point where people have started to live and build towns. I like to read books about frontier life in America.
fully  (adv.) It takes a while to fully appreciate the music of Igor Stravinsky.
great, greater, greatest  (comparatives) I’m a great pianist, she’s greater, but he’s the greatest pianist of all.
guitar  A guitar is a musical instrument with six strings, used in a wide variety of musical styles. It can be acoustic or electric. Someone who plays the guitar is called a guitarist.
harp  A harp is a musical instrument consisting of a row of strings stretched over a large upright frame. Someone who plays a harp is called a harpist.
humor Humour or humor is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The term derives from the humoural medicine of the ancient Greeks, which taught that the balance of fluids in the human body, known as humours (Latin: humor, “body fluid”), control human health and emotion.
hymn  I really enjoy listening to the old Christian hymns in church. The most famous Christian hymn of all is “Amazing Grace.” The words to this hymn were written by English poet and clergyman John Newton.
imagination  Ernest Hemingway’s unique writing style makes you use your imagination to give the characters a life of their own.
impressionistic  In musical composition, Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel are generally considered the greatest of the Impressionist composers. In literature, Joseph Conrad has written works that are Impressionistic in the way that they describe, rather than interpret, the impressions, sensations and emotions that constitute a character’s mental life.
jazz  A genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles. Jazz music originally came from the American south. The African-Americans invented jazz.
literary  Appropriate to literature rather than everyday speech or writing; “when trying to impress someone she spoke in an affected literary style”.One of the greatest literary figures of modern times was Ernest Hemingway.
melody  A melody is an agreeable succession of sounds; a succession of sounds so regulated and modulated as to please the ear. To constitute melody, the sounds must be arranged according to the laws of rhythms, measure, or the due proportion of the movements to each other. Melody differs from harmony, as it consists in the agreeable succession and modulation of sounds by a single voice; whereas harmony consists in the accordance of different voices or sounds. Melody is vocal or instrumental. To make melody in the heart, to praise God with a joyful sound… “speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord.” Ephesians 5:19.
metaphor  A metaphor is a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. As a characteristic of speech and writing, metaphors can serve the poetic imagination, Sylvia Plath, in her poem “Cut”, to compare the blood issuing from her cut thumb to the running of a million soldiers, “redcoats, every one”; and Robert Frost, in “The Road Not Taken”, to compare one’s life to a journey.
musician  A musician (or “instrumentalist”) is a person who plays a musical instrument, especially (although not necessarily) as a profession, or is talented, in making music or performing music creatively, or one who composes, conducts, or performs (especially instrumental) music.
novelist  an author who writes novels.
orchestra  a large group of musicians using many different instruments to play mostly classical music. The person in charge of an orchestra is its conductor.
pianist  someone who plays the piano, especially as their profession.
piece  a written, musical, or artistic work that someone has produced. This vase is a particularly beautiful piece. piece of: a piece of music/sculpture/poetry.
pioneer  one of the first people to do something important that is later continued and developed by other people.
playwright  A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. These works may be written specifically to be performed by actors or they may be closet dramas or literary works written using dramatic forms but not meant for performance.
poetry Poetry (from the Greek poiesis — ποίησις — meaning a “making”, seen also in such terms as “hemopoiesis“; more narrowly, the making of poetry) is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
popular  an adjective meaning: appealing to the general public.
quartet  In music, a quartet is an ensemble of four singers or instrumental performers; or a musical composition for four voices or instruments.
realistic  The John Steinbeck’s book, Cannery Row was written in realistic literary form. That is to say, the incidents in the book were taken from real-life events of the author.
romantic  relating to the style of literature, art, and music known as romanticism. the Romantic tradition, the Romantic poets. the musical style used by Beethoven, Chopin, Brahms, Wagner and other late 18th and 19th-century composers. the poetic style used by Schiller, Blake, Keats, Wordsworth and other late 18th and 19th-century poets.
rural  The rural areas of America have an interesting history.
sacred  She likes to play sacred music on the piano in church.
saxophone  Did you know that former President Bill Clinton plays the saxophone?
sentimental  making people experience feelings of sadness, sympathy, love etc, especially in a deliberate and obvious way: a sentimental song/book/film
song  a piece of music with words that you sing. She knew the words to every song that came on the radio. a popular/patriotic/folk song; He sang a beautiful love song. The Song of Solomon is the most metaphoric song in the Bible.
stimulating  something that makes you feel physically or mentally active. The music of Johann Sebastian Bach is quite stimulating.
stirring  something that causes strong emotions in a person.
string  an adjective denoting the type of musical instrument or band of musicians. A guitar is a string instrument. A string quartet is a band or group of four musicians all playing string instruments.
symphony  a long piece of classical music played by a symphony orchestra.
thrilling  extremely exciting.
trombone  A trombone is a musical instrument consisting of two metal tubes shaped like the letter U that fit into each other, with one tube wide at one end. You play it by blowing into it as you slide one of the tubes forwards and backwards. A trombone is a brass instrument. Someone who plays the trombone is called a tromboni
unrealistic  based on hopes or wishes, and not on what is likely or possible. Most science fiction literature is quite unrealistic, however entertaining it may be.
violinist  someone who plays a violin; usually as a profession.
vivid  having or producing very clear and detailed images in the mind.
well-known  to be known by many people or by the people involved in a particular situation. Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are perhaps the most well-know American writers in the world today.
works  the finished product of writers. His library includes the complete works of Edgar Rice Burroughs.